The project’ s focus is on the creation of the Luxembourg nation as an argument for the independent nationhood of the country and as an instrument of social inclusion and exclusion. In the 1930s the creation of the nation ofLuxembourg, which since the 19th century had been repeatedly threatened, then accelerated then delayed, was facing the political ‘ völkisch’ agitation of the Nazis, who considered the Luxembourgers to be part of their ‘ German ethnic community’ . The project begins with the interwar period and then concentrates on the effect of the occupation of the country by German troops and the ‘ take-over’ of Luxembourg and its people by the ‘ Greater German Empire’ . Beyond the period of war and occupation, it examines the competition between the groups of victims in the political sphere and in the domain of memory culture in Luxembourg and its neighbouring countries, which continues until the present day. These groups were resistance fighters, enforced recruits, Jews as victims of the Nazi ideology of racial belonging (‘ Volkstum’ ) and those opposed to the Nazis for political and ideological reasons. Their struggle for recognitionmay be seen as a reflection of their own persecution by the Nazis and thecrimes of the German army. The project will also examine the boundaries between enforced cooperation and collaboration. Oral history is crucial in complementing and challenging traditional archival material. Filmmaker Loretta Walz conducted interviews with almost 100 people about their WW2 experiences. Their testimonies are both relevant to the study of history of the Occupation and the memory of that period.